This provides evidence that the unmarked form of the noun has no number value. Color terms belong to the class of nouns, and modification by a color term has the same form as modification by another noun:.
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Some kinship terms, e. The use of plural rather than singular possessive pronouns is motivated by the roles the referents of these terms play within the family. The modifiers in this construction all belong to the class of property concepts concepts expressed by adjectives in many languages :. In most cases, this construction is used where the modifier is the intended owner or destination of the head:.
The construction is used only when both components, the possessor and the possessum, are nominal. The construction is used for coding the parent-child relationship, but not the child-parent relationship or a spousal relationship:. A lexical item is an adjective in Hdi if 1 it modifies nouns and 2 it cannot be used as an argument. Terms for size, shape, and quality are adjectives in Hdi; color terms are not. The modifying construction with adjectives has the form Noun Adjective, without any intervening marker.
Inherent adjectives in the attributive function occur after the noun they modify:. Numerals behave like adjectives in that the modifying construction has the form Head Numeral, without any additional markers:. Modifying constructions with adjectives code only two degrees: the unmarked and the comparative, where the latter corresponds in scope to the English comparative and superlative. Modification by quantifiers has the form Noun Quantifier. Other material, such as a possessive pronoun, may intervene between the noun and the quantifier. Quantifiers do not occur with deictics:.
If the first member of the associative phrase is represented by a pronoun, the pronoun is plural even if the first participant is singular. Thus, instead of the third person singular pronoun, the third-person plural must be used, and instead of the first-person singular, the first-person plural must be used. The following chart lists the independent pronouns:.
The complete range of functions of the combinations of various coding means within the system of reference has yet to be discovered. The reduplicated deictic form can be used as an independent noun in a clause:. If there is only one demonstrative before the noun, the distance seems to be closer than if there are two demonstratives before the noun:.
The anaphor can also co-occur with a deictic marker that functions as the sole component of the noun phrase, or it can occur as the determiner of the noun. Both cases are illustrated in the next example:. Hdi has the functional domain of referentiality of the event, where the distinction is between referential marked and non-referential unmarked events. Referentiality of the event is marked by the suffix -ta with high or low tone, glossed as REF, added to the verb.
The marker -ta indicates that the proposition refers to real-world phenomena. The event is made referential if it affects a referential object or a referential predicate. Compare the unspecified object versus the previously mentioned object:. The verbless clauses include: equational predication; identificational predication; attributive predication; possessive predication; existential predication; locative stative predication; and presentative predication. Equational clauses identify one noun phrase by another.
Equational clauses in Hdi have no copula. The distinction between subject and predicate is marked through word order. The predicate is the first noun phrase and the subject is the noun phrase that follows:.
An identificational clause is a clause whose subject has been mentioned in the previous discourse or has been present in the discourse environment but is not overtly marked in the clause. Such clauses have the form Noun phrase Copula, where the noun phrase is the predicate. The subject is not overtly marked. The last tone of the noun must be high before the copula, regardless of the underlying tone of the noun. This is the same rule as the one that operates before subjects in verbal clauses.
Attributive predication defines the attribute of the noun. Property-concept words, like noun phrases, are marked for the predicative function by the clause-initial position. There are two types of property concept expressions: inherent adjectives and expressions derived from other lexical categories. The order Predicate Noun is the pragmatically unmarked order.
In locative predicative expressions, the locative phrase precedes the subject of the clause. The locative predication has the form Preposition Noun Noun. The pragmatically neutral clause begins with the verb, which may be followed by a noun phrase. The position before the verb is one of the coding means for topicalization and focus. The categories encoded in the verbal clauses are different for pronominal and nominal constituents.
For pronominal constituents, the language distinguishes between the subject, direct object, and indirect object. For nominal constituents, the language distinguishes between the subject; the non-subject which is not the same as object ; and a variety of semantic relations that include the benefactive but not the indirect object. Given the richness of semantic information coded on the verb, the description of verbal clauses has to begin with the description of the morphology of the verb.
Verbs, unlike nouns, cannot begin with a vowel. Other vowels code specific syntactic or semantic functions of the subject, the point of view from which the event is presented, the type of clause, and the aspect. A verb may be simple or reduplicated. Different reduplicated forms code perfective and progressive aspects, and verbal plurality.
Subject pronouns are suffixed to the simple and reduplicated forms. Object pronouns are infixed in the reduplicated forms. Both simple and reduplicated verb may have a variety of verbal extensions suffixed to the simple verb and infixed in the reduplicated verb.
A Grammar of Hdi
There are two types of verbal nouns. One type ends in the vowel u or i. The conditions determining whether the high vowel is front rather than back are not phonological, because some verbs can have both types of nouns, one with a front vowel and the other with a back vowel. For most verbal nouns, substituting the front vowel for the back, or the back vowel for the front, results in nonsense words.
The tonal pattern of the verbal noun is the same as that of the verb. Polyconsonantal verbs that have the initial vowel i have the nominal form ending in i :.
Verbs in Hdi display the distinction of number. The unmarked form does not code number; the marked form codes verbal plurality, which implies plurality of the event, plurality of the subject of an intransitive verb, or plurality of the object of a transitive verb. The product of such reduplication can be reduplicated further to code the perfective aspect:.
When the verb is transitive, the plural marker codes plurality of the object or plurality of the action. The object does not have to be marked for plural:. For bisyllabic verbs, the plural is formed by leftward repetition of the first syllable. In the perfective aspect the reduplicated theme of the verb is repeated twice:. Several of these means may co-occur within the same clause.
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- A Grammar of Hdi.
The noun phrase but not the prepositional phrase directly following the verb in clauses other than sequential clauses is interpreted as subject:. In sequential clauses, there is no formal distinction between the nominal subject and the nominal object. In sentences containing sequential clauses, one usually expects the first clause to mention the subject, while subsequent clauses will not overtly mention the subject.. In the following example, the first clause has the subject following the verb.
A Grammar of Hdi
In the sequential clauses within the same sentence, the noun phrase that follows the verb is interpreted as object:. This section presents analyses different from the ones in Frajzyngier with Shay and includes some argumentation to support the new analyses. As demonstrated throughout examples in the dictionary, this noun is very frequently the object of the clause:. The verb is intransitive, as the entity that gets warmed up is always the subject.
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