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Flour is a biological material and when obtained from different sources can vary considerably in its protein quality, protein quantity, ash, moisture, enzymatic activity, color, and physical properties. It is essential for the baker to be aware of any variations in these characteristics from one flour shipment to the next.
The purpose of flour testing is to measure specific properties or characteristics of a flour. The simple air-oven method is sufficiently accurate for the routine analysis of flour moisture at the flour mill or bakery. The moisture content of the flour is important for two reasons. First, the higher the moisture content, the lower the amount of dry solids in the flour. Organisms naturally present in the flour will start to grow at high moistures, producing off odors and flavors. Ash is the mineral material in flour.
The ash content of any given flour is affected primarily by the ash content of the wheat from which it was milled and its milling extraction. The test for determining the ash content involves incinerating a known weight of flour under controlled conditions, weighing the residue, and calculating the percentage of ash based upon the original sample weight. The ash content of wheat varies from about 1. The pure endosperm contains about 0. Thus, the ash content is a sensitive measure of the amount of non-endosperm material that is in the flour. The goal of milling is to separate the endosperm from the non-endosperm parts of the wheat kernel.
This separating is difficult and never clean. Thus, there is always contamination of endosperm with non-endosperm and visa versa. As flour yield is increased, the amount of contamination with non-endosperm increases and the ash content increases. Thus, the ash content is a good and sensitive measure of the contamination of the endosperm. Millers will often comment that the ash does not affect the baking performance of flour.
This is probably true. However, the non-endosperm parts of the wheat kernel are known to decrease baking quality and as the ash content increases so does the level of non-endosperm material. The ash content of white pan bread flour has increased over the years from 0. The amount of protein in a food material is usually determined by measuring the nitrogen content of the material and multiplying that value by a factor. The nitrogen content of a given protein varies depending on its source.
For milk products a factor of 6. These factors depend on the percentage of nitrogen in the respective proteins. The flour protein content is an important parameter for bread flour. Flours containing higher protein contents are more expensive than flours of lower protein content. Likewise, flours with very low proteins for cakes are also more expensive.
There is usually, but not always, a good correlation between protein content and bakery performance of a flour. The classic procedure to determine the nitrogen was the Kjeldahl procedure.
Characterization Cereals Flours Properties Analysis Applications
This involved digesting the sample in concentrated sulfuric acid, then neutralizing the acid with concentrated sodium hydroxide, followed by distillation of the ammonia derived from the nitrogen in the protein into a standard acid. The procedure worked well, however it was an environmental nightmare. In addition to the strong acid and base, the catalysts used to speed the digestion included such materials as mercury and selenium. It should surprise no one that the procedure is seldom used today.
The Kjeldahl procedure has been replaced by the Dumas combustion procedure. In the original Dumas procedure the sample is mixed with cupric oxide and heated in a stream of carbon dioxide in a combustion tube packed with cupric oxide and copper metal. The organic material is converted to carbon dioxide, water and nitrogen. This absorbs the carbon dioxide and any oxides of sulfur, leaving only nitrogen as a gas. The volume of nitrogen is then determined. Various machines have been developed to carry out the analysis automatically. The percent nitrogen is then converted to protein using the appropriate factor.
Both the Dumas combustion and the Kjeldahl procedures estimate the quantity total amount of protein and not the protein quality. As discussed elsewhere, the quantity of protein is extremely important in the baking performance of a flour.
Characterization of Cereals and Flours: Properties, Analysis And Applications
The rapid instrumental analysis of cereals and flours has considerable commercial appeal. Therefore, the near infrared reflectance NIR method of estimating protein and moisture contents has found ready acceptance in the milling and baking industries because it is capable of generating nearly instantaneous results. NIR instruments can be operated by non-technical personnel with good precision and reproducibility.
Near infrared NIR methodology has been developed for the determination of protein, moisture, and starch of cereals and their milled products. The range of the electromagnetic spectrum extends from the very long radio waves to the very short gamma rays. The near infrared region is between 0. The first commercial NIR instruments appeared in the s and have been improved during the ensuing years by interfacing them with computers. This has led to the rapid evaluation of the spectral data whose numerical results are then shown on the readout screen.
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In the NIR range, the absorption bands are broad and overlapping. Thus, measurements taken at any wavelength are affected by several components of the wheat or flour. Therefore, it is necessary to consider several bands of the spectrum to eliminate the interfering effects of other components. This approach necessitates measurements at several wavelengths and computations using multiple regression analysis, which requires computer facilities.
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The regression equations have to be developed for various cereal types and varieties to calibrate the instrument. They must be rechecked periodically with standard samples. While the equipment is expensive, it is also very efficient and worth the investment for laboratories that need rapid and accurate analyses.
The procedure for carrying out an analysis is quite simple. Essentially, it involves carefully filling a sample cup with the finely ground test material, e. When the drawer is closed, the instrument automatically starts to analyze the sample by exposing its surface to radiation within a selected narrow band of wavelengths and measuring the reflectance.
Some newer instruments are transmitted radiation rather than reflected. The entire operation takes approximately one minute. Some of the newer instruments are designed to analyze whole grain samples. The level of free fatty acids in flour milled from sound wheat is very low. Thus, the level of free fatty acids is a good measure of the storage conditions of either the grain or the flour.
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Flours with high levels of free fatty acids will be more subjected to rancidity than will sound flours. This is of little importance in bread but quite important in dry products cookies, crackers, croutons, pretzels, etc.
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