Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture


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Review "The book takes its value from being very well organized, concise, and clear. Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture provides a more coherent approach by covering all the necessary topics in one single textbook, including: Instruction set architecture and design Assembly language programming Computer arithmetic Processing unit design Memory system design Input-output design and organization Pipeline design techniques Reduced Instruction Set Computers RISCs Introduction to multiprocessors This comprehensive and didactic resource provides an introduction to computer systems, including historical background, to provide a context and framework for concepts and applications developed in subsequent chapters; case examples of real-world computer systems that illuminate key concepts and demonstrate practical applications; and exercises, summaries, references, and further reading recommendations at the end of each chapter.

See all Product description. No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Most helpful customer reviews on Amazon. December 8, - Published on Amazon. I was hoping to find an alternative to Patterson et al. This book loses one star for bad editing.

It loses another star for being in places just plain wrong about details. The authors seem to do fine with "big picture" generalizations, but when it comes to the particulars -- watch out!

[PDF] Fundamentals of computer organization and architecture - Semantic Scholar

This problem seems most obvious when they try to talk about the features of real-world CPUs, such as the x86 family. For example, they made a couple statements about Pentium memory management that left me wondering if they had ever read the Intel documentation. In general, their real-world examples seemed to be something that they stuck into the book in order to make it "more relevant.

January 14, - Published on Amazon. First off, there is no such thing as "The interface between the application programs and a high level language They might as well have said "The interface between red construction bricks and red clay One is made of the other. Bricks are made of clay which is shaped by a mold. Application programs are made of bits and pieces of a high level language that is, the keywords, operators and other syntax elements that the high level language defines which are "shaped" into the desired form by the source code that the programmer writes.

Fundamentals Of Computer Organization And Architecture (2005).pdf

Briggs, Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing, 2nd ed. Tesler, Networked computing in the s, reprinted from the Sept. Treleaven, Control-driven data-driven and demand-driven computer architecture abstract , Parallel Comput. Treleaven, D.


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Brownbridge, and R. Our discussion starts with a consideration of memory locations and addresses. We present an abstract model of the main memory in which it is considered as a sequence of cells each capable of storing n bits. We then address the issue of stor- ing and retrieving information into and from the memory.

A discussion on a number of different ways to address memory locations addressing modes is the next topic to be discussed in the chapter. A program consists of a number of instruc- tions that have to be accessed in a certain order. That motivates us to explain the issue of instruction execution and sequencing in some detail. We then show the application of the presented addressing modes and instruction characteristics in writing sample segment codes for performing a number of simple programming tasks.

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A unique characteristic of computer memory is that it should be organized in a hier- archy. In such hierarchy, larger and slower memories are used to supplement smaller and faster ones. A typical memory hierarchy starts with a small, expensive, and rela- tively fast module, called the cache. The cache is followed in the hierarchy by a larger, less expensive, and relatively slow main memory part. Cache and main memory are built using semiconductor material.

They are followed in the hierarchy by larger, less expensive, and far slower magnetic memories that consist of the hard disk and the tape. In par- ticular, we focus on the way information is stored in and retrieved out of the memory. An entity consisting of 8 bits is called a byte.

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In many systems, the entity consisting of n bits that can be stored and retrieved in and out of the memory using one basic memory operation is called a word the smallest addressable entity. Typical size of a word ranges from 16 to 64 bits. It is, however, customary to express the size of the memory in terms of bytes. In order to be able to move a word in and out of the memory, a distinct address has to be assigned to each word. This address will be used to determine the location in the memory in which a given word is to be stored. This is called a memory write operation.

Similarly, the address will be used to determine the memory location from which a word is to be retrieved from the memory. This is called a memory read operation. Figure 2. As mentioned above, there are two basic memory operations. These are the memory write and memory read operations. Typically, memory read and memory write operations are performed by the central processing unit CPU.

Similar to the write operation, three basic steps are needed in order to perform a memory read operation: 1. The address of the location from which the word is to be read is loaded into the MAR. Before execution After execution Figure 2.

3.7 Fundamentals of computer organisation and architecture

In computer terminology, such information is called the operand. Therefore, any instruction issued by the processor must carry at least two types of information.

We explain these classes together with simple examples in the following paragraphs. It should be noted that in presenting these examples, we would use the convention operation, source, destination to express any instruction. In that convention, operation rep- resents the operation to be performed, for example, add, subtract, write, or read.

The source operand can be a con- stant, a value stored in a register, or a value stored in the memory. A three-address instruction takes the form operation add-1, add-2, add In this form, each of add-1, add-2, and add-3 refers to a register or to a memory location. This instruction indicates that Figure 2.

It also indicates that the values to be added are those stored in registers R1 and R2 that the results should be stored in register R3. The instruction adds the contents of memory location A to the contents of memory location B and stores the result in memory location C. A two-address instruction takes the form operation add-1, add In this form, each of add-1 and add-2 refers to a register or to a memory location.

This instruction adds the contents of regis- ter R1 to the contents of register R2 and stores the results in register R2. The original contents of register R2 are lost due to this operation while the original contents of register R1 remain intact. In this case, the contents of memory location A are added to the contents of memory location B and the result is used to override the original contents of memory location B.

A one-address instruction takes the form ADD R1. In this case the instruction implicitly refers to a register, called the Accumulator Racc, such that the contents of the accumulator is added to the contents of the register R1 and the results are stored back into the accumulator Racc. If a memory location is used instead of a reg- ister then an instruction of the form ADD B is used. In this case, the instruction adds the content of the accumulator Racc to the content of memory location B and stores the result back into the accumulator Racc.

Between the two- and the one-address instruction, there can be a one-and-half address instruction. In this case, the instruction adds the contents of register R1 to the contents of memory location B and stores the result in register R1. Owing to the fact that the instruction uses two types of addressing, that is, a register and a memory location, it is called a one-and-half-address instruction. This is because register addressing needs a smaller number of bits than those needed by memory addressing. It is interesting to indicate that there exist zero-address instructions. These are the instructions that use stack operation.

These are the push and the pop operations. In the stack push operation, the SP value is used to indicate the location called the top of the stack in which the value 5A is to be stored in this case it is location After storing pushing this value the SP is 2. The value stored at this location DD in this case is retrieved popped out and stored in the shown register. Different operations can be performed using the stack structure. Table 2. The different ways in which operands can be addressed are called the addressing modes.

The simplest addressing mode is to include the operand itself in the instruction, that is, no address information is needed. This is called immediate addressing. A more involved addressing mode is to compute the address of the operand by adding a constant value to the content of a register. This is called indexed addressing. Between these two addressing modes there exist a number of other addressing modes including absolute addressing, direct addressing, and indirect addressing. A number of different addressing modes are explained below.

Immediate Mode According to this addressing mode, the value of the operand is immediately avail- able in the instruction itself. Consider, for example, the case of loading the decimal value into a register Ri.

In this instruction, the operation to be per- formed is to load a value into a register. The source operand is immediately given as , and the destination is the register Ri. As can be seen the use of the immediate addressing mode is simple.

Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture
Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture
Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture
Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture
Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture
Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture
Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture
Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture
Fundamentals of Computer Organization and Architecture

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