The first case study deals with the mad cow fiasco of , one of the most expensive and tragic examples of poor risk management in the last twenty-five years.
For ten years the British government failed to acknowledge the possibility of a link between mad cow disease and Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease, the human equivalent, until increased scientific evidence and public pressu The first case study deals with the mad cow fiasco of , one of the most expensive and tragic examples of poor risk management in the last twenty-five years. For ten years the British government failed to acknowledge the possibility of a link between mad cow disease and Creuzfeldt-Jakob disease, the human equivalent, until increased scientific evidence and public pressure forced them to take action, resulting in the slaughter of more than one million cattle.
The second study looks at what is commonly known as hamburger disease, caused by a virulent form of the E.
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Despite its widespread effects, it is unclear whether scientific knowledge on preventing the disease is reaching the public. Other case studies include the use of a genetically engineered hormone to increase milk production in cows, health risks associated with silicone breast implants, public controversies surrounding dioxins and PCBs, and the introduction of agricultural biotechnology.
These case studies show that institutions routinely fail to communicate the scientific basis of various high-profile risks. These failures to inform the public make it difficult for governments, industry, and society to manage risk controversies sensibly and often result in massive costs. With its detailed analyses of specific risk management controversies, Mad Cows and Mother's Milk will help us avoid future mistakes.
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This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. The objective of the workshop was to produce a summary document which both evaluates the current status of dangerous goods risk management and propose specific areas for further investigation and possible action.
The primary objective of the Workshop was to examine the development of methods for utilizing available resources of environmental health status information, and exploring the relationship between environmental status and associated indicators of health status in the Canadian population. The papers cover the following topic areas:. Edited by S. This volume is the proceedings of a Conference on Drinking Water Safety: A Total Quality Management Approach that was held to consider the recent incidents of drinking water contamination in Canada in context with state of the art approaches to drinking water protection in Canada, Australia and worldwide.
A key objective was to identify priority actions to be implemented over the next 5 to 10 years to improve drinking water safety in Canada. Delegates emphasized the need for immediate improvements to ensure the robustness of small water supply systems in Canada, in conjunction with longer-tem initiatives to develop a National, comprehensive risk-based framework for management of drinking water. The adoption of an integrated, ecosystem watershed management approach to ensure effective source protection across Canada was recommended as well as continued support for research and development to assess drinking water system vulnerabilities and to further optimize water treatment, distribution, monitoring and management systems.
This volume presents the conference summary statement on priorities for drinking water safety in Canada and peer reviewed papers addressing key elements and state of the art approaches for drinking water risk management.
The papers address five main themes: best practice in drinking water quality and safety; perspectives for risk management; management of water systems; water quality indicators; and water treatment and quality issues. This volume presents the latest information on the benefits and detriments of various energy alternatives.
The primary focus is on the total impact on modern society of energy and, in particular, energy that is widely usable at low cost. Subject areas highlighted are:. Energy for Years: Benefits and Risks J. Nathwani, E. Siddall, N. Lind This book is about sustainable energy use: its impacts on wealth creation, the attendant consequences on social and economic well-being, and the risks and benefits that arise from energy use.
Using the framework developed in the IRR publication Managing Risks in the Public Interest, the authors examine the connection between energy use and economic growth, present a study of the expected future needs for energy, the abilities of various supply options coal, oil, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, wind, solar, and conservation to meet that demand, and the assessment of the environmental impacts and the risk and benefits associated with energy use.
This volume addresses the application of current scientific knowledge to problems in risk assessment and risk management for environmental health hazards. Its primary focus is on the health effects produced by environmental pollutants and occupational hazards with an emphasis placed on chemical toxicants that produce chronic disorders. Powell, W. Leiss Communicating the nature and consequences of environmental and health risks to the public is one of the most problematic areas for policy makers.
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Given the perceived risks associated with the food we eat, chemicals in the environment, and modern technologies, consumers need clear and timely explanations of the nature of those risks - but they rarely get them. Using a series of high-profile examples - including the mad cow fiasco, E. They argue that the failure of institutions to inform the public about the scientific bases of various risks makes it difficult for government, industry, and society to manage risk controversies sensibly and often results in massive costs.
Lind, J. Siddall Risks arising from technology should be managed in such a way as to maximize the net benefit to society.
This study provides a framework for the implementation of the principle of maximizing the net benefit to society. Two combined indicators of the expectancy and quality of life are developed to give criteria for decision-making in policy matters on life saving and safety. The central issue of risk management in the public interest is very much the wise allocation of scarce resources.
The study develops the theme that progress in the management of risks is possible if an open accounting is rendered of the risks and the benefits. This should then form the basis for guiding decisions among alternatives. Haight This volume will assist those involved in the decision-making process for municipal solid waste management in selecting effective, integrative management strategies.
The various options landfilling, combustion and the 3Rs are evaluated from risk assessment and risk management perspectives. The health and environmental risks, economic implications, principles of operation and future directions of each of these municipal solid waste management strategies are explored. The contributions are from various professions including industry, government departments, consultants and academia.
Their treatment of the issues addresses the needs of other professionals as well as those of the public in general. McCoy, and Angela Griffiths It is a practical and applicable resource for organizations proposing change in a stable, traditional environment e.
Mad Cows and Mother's Milk: The Perils of Poor Risk Communication
Through an examination of risk communication theory, organizational barriers and case studies, readers will be better able to clearly identify and resolve issues in advance of engaging the public interest. Wilson Even when the communication context requires authorities to issue 'top down' messages, consumers are not simply passive receivers of information.
Consumers will vary in their capacities to decode information and in how responsive they are to the information that they are given. Greater understanding is needed of three information-relevant dimensions of consumer behaviour - responding, seeking and deliberating - and of the impact upon each of them of multiple, contested or uncertain communications. The social marketing literature brings further insights here in considering how best to target particular subgroups of the population with particular messages. In relation to food, in addition to differences between different countries [ 21 ], gender is a crucial socio-demographic parameter of segmentation [ 22 ], as men and women have different social practices around consumption, household behaviour and responsibility around food issues [ 23 ].
Furthermore, there are differences between men and women; in their vulnerability to food risks e. Notably it will provide research evidence on the role of information seeking and questioning on the part of consumers and critical trust in food risk communication across Europe, through information seeking and deliberation.
By integrating novel measurement methods that bring together qualitative and quantitative self report data with behavioural measures of attention to risk and benefit information, this project will extend the state-of-the-art in measurement of risk and benefit perception. Through dissemination and training, this toolkit will directly improve current practice in food communication among national and international policy groups.
Make recommendations about the unique potential of new social media and provide practical guidance as to how risk communicators can best use these media for the communication of food risk and benefit. Characterise consumers and the ways in which consumers respond to information about food risk and benefit, taking into account gender and other relevant socio-demographics as well as important qualities of the information itself and the context in which it is given, e.
Investigate and characterise the role of information seeking in relation to food risk and benefit, taking into account different stimuli and contexts. Characterise the potential use and role of deliberative engagement in food risk and benefit communication. Propose a strategy alongside the necessary tools for effective communication of coherent messages across the Member States, which could also support the implementation of EU policy initiatives. In order to identify barriers to effective communication and to develop common approaches for communicating coherent messages across Europe this project will provide new evidence in relation to five broad areas:.
How consumers respond to information they perceive as uncertain, contested or confusing and to develop relevant segmentation criteria. Developing practical ways in which consumer sense making and deliberation can be taken into account in order to provide substantive benefits to stakeholders in developing communications. A recent review of the state of the art in food risk communication [ 16 ] has suggested the value of tailoring communication strategies to different profiles of food risk and benefit.
Food risk perception and communication studies have primarily been located around 'food scares' with limited consideration of communication around the more everyday examples of food risks and benefits [ 27 ]. The role of new 'social' media has thus far been peripheral to consideration of the communication of risk.
Rather the focus has been upon traditional instruments of risk communication such as brochures and leaflets, information videos, and exhibitions [ 7 ]. However the reach of innovative communication technologies is increasing exponentially and the need to embrace the potential they provide has recently been identified as one of the key challenges of the coming years [ 28 ]. This project will provide a systematic examination of the potential for their use across Europe and practical guidance as to how they can best be used both to understand what concerns people have and how they are making sense of communications as well as how best to use social media as a communication tool.
A basic dilemma in meeting this challenge is to be informed by the perspectives of those at whom the communication is aimed whilst at the same time fulfilling the responsibility to issue relevant, speedy, authoritative communications where necessary. One innovative way in which FoodRisC addresses this challenge is through the development at European level of an online deliberation tool that has already undergone extensive piloting in the UK [ 29 ].
The ethics of truth-telling and the problem of risk | SpringerLink
The key properties of this tool are to enable people to engage with information on their terms, to facilitate the expression of questions and comments, and to address these. In a move away from 'event-based' deliberation, this tool engages people in a way that approximates the more everyday processes of information seeking and sense making. This tool, known as EnGauge, not only allows for the analysis of the textual material participants provide but links this with precise behavioural indicators of online behaviour, for example, what material has been accessed and for how long.
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