Rerum Novarum: On The Condition Of Working Classes
Similar concerns, on a slow burn, have long been discussed where states take over the educational process. In other words, the societal damage done by the revolutionary socialist states, such as Germany and Russia, is also generated over the longer term by socialist parties. Philosophy is to be treated without taking any account of supernatural revelation. Every man is free to embrace and profess that religion which, guided by the light of reason, he shall consider true.
Man may, in the observance of any religion whatever, find the way of eternal salvation, and arrive at eternal salvation. The Church has not the power of using force, nor has she any temporal power, direct or indirect. The sacred ministers of the Church and the Roman pontiff are to be absolutely excluded from every charge and dominion over temporal affairs. The Church ought to be separated from the. State, and the State from the Church. Matrimonial causes and espousals belong by their nature to civil tribunals. In the present day it is no longer expedient that the Catholic religion should be held as the only religion of the State, to the exclusion of all other forms of worship.
The Roman Pontiff can, and ought to, reconcile himself, and come to terms with progress, liberalism and modern civilization. Note: from Quibus quantisque, Unfortunately, no copy in English has yet been located. The violation of any solemn oath, as well as any wicked and flagitious action repugnant to the eternal law, is not only not blamable but is altogether lawful and worthy of the highest praise when done through love of country. Pastor aeternus , which was approved by Vatican I on 18 July, , defined the extent and limits of papal infallibility. Chapter 4, section 9 states:.
Therefore, faithfully adhering to the tradition received from the beginning of the christian faith, to the glory of God our savior, for the exaltation of the Catholic religion and for the salvation of the christian people, with the approval of the Sacred Council, we teach and define as a divinely revealed dogma that when the Roman Pontiff speaks EX CATHEDRA, that is, when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church, he possesses, by the divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, that infallibility which the divine Redeemer willed his Church to enjoy in defining doctrine concerning faith or morals.
Therefore, such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are of themselves, and not by the consent of the Church, irreformable. At the very beginning of Our pontificate, as the nature of Our apostolic office demanded, we hastened to point out in an encyclical letter addressed to you, venerable brethren, the deadly plague that is creeping into the very fibers of human society and leading it on to the verge of destruction; at the same time We pointed out also the most effectual remedies by which society might be restored and might escape from the very serious dangers which threaten it.
Rerum Novarum: On The Condition Of Working Classes by Pope Leo XIII
But the evils which We then deplored have so rapidly increased that We are again compelled to address you, as though we heard the voice of the prophet ringing in Our ears: "Cry, cease not, lift up thy voice like a trumpet. The Roman Catholic Church is, of course, a major long term enemy of freedom, but it has not proven nearly as dangerous as socialism.
Socialism dehumanises, and that is what Rome recognised from very early on. Socialism has also been responsible for ginormous amounts of social disruption and for deaths by the 10s of millions. This again was recognised, and even predicted, very early on by Rome. But the Church has also been a major enemy of liberalism, a dire fault it shares with socialism.
On balance, however, socialism has proven to be a much greater enemy of humanity. The major enemy identified by the Church, in its fight against liberalism, was freemasonry rather than socialism.
Socialism is more authoritarian even than the Church. The Church has also however responded to the real concerns regarding the conditions of workers often expressed by socialism. The abolition in the schools of every kind of religious instruction, and the founding of institutions in which even girls are to be withdrawn from all clerical influence whatever it may be; because the State, which ought to be absolutely atheistic, has the inalienable right and duty to form the heart and the spirit of its citizens, and no school should exist apart from its inspiration and control.
Instead, the Masonic influence is to make itself felt in all the circumstances of social life, and to become master and controller of everything. Such are the authentic declarations, aspirations, and resolutions, of Freemasons or of their assemblies. The Church was fighting furiously against the intrusions of the State, which in its turn was attempting to remove all education, charity and so on, as well as to capture all Church property, clergy appointments etc.
This process continues to this day under such labels as "social justice" and "social progressive". It has generated many destructive forms of revolution around the world, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. Unfortunately, the babies are often ejected with the bath water. Rerum Novarum is regarded among catholic apologists, with almost overweening pride, as showing the deep concerns of the Church for the poor and oppressed.
It is from Rerum Novarum and later, that the idea of the corporative state was developed. The corporative state is supposed to work from the bottom of society upwards, with unions and business organisations regarded as legitimate expressions of the individual.
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The theory tends to assume that, by working together, individuals, families and such organisations can be part of the state without serious conflict. Of course, this does not prove so, as various individuals and interests jockey for advantage. The corporative state is often confused with the corporate state of socialism. Individuals in the socialist corporate state are its creatures, and the state is a beehive where individuals and their interests must be strictly subject to the state. In both cases, the reality tends to end at similar points with top-down government, lack of freedom, and predictable poverty.
But the dogma behind these models is seriously different. The Church is far more humanity-oriented and tends to kill far less. Socialism is essentially collectivist where the individual has no intrinsic place, individuality or value. Rerum novarum was developed further in Quadragesimo anno With truly lamentable results, our age, casting aside all restraint in its search for the ultimate causes of things, frequently pursues novelties so ardently that it rejects the legacy of the human race.
Thus it falls into very serious errors, which are even more serious when they concern sacred authority, the interpretation of Sacred Scripture, and the principal mysteries of Faith. The fact that many Catholic writers also go beyond the limits determined by the Fathers and the Church herself is extremely regrettable. In the name of higher knowledge and historical research they say , they are looking for that progress of dogmas which is, in reality, nothing but the corruption of dogmas. Even by dogmatic definitions the Church's magisterium cannot determine the genuine sense of the Sacred Scriptures.
In proscribing errors, the Church cannot demand any internal assent from the faithful by which the judgments she issues are to be embraced. They are free from all blame who treat lightly the condemnations passed by the Sacred Congregation of the Index or by the Roman Congregations. If he wishes to apply himself usefully to Biblical studies, the exegete must first put aside all preconceived opinions about the supernatural origin of Sacred Scripture and interpret it the same as any other merely human document.
The organic constitution of the Church is not immutable. Like human society, Christian society is subject to a perpetual evolution. The Roman Church became the head of all the churches, not through the ordinance of Divine Providence, but merely through political conditions. Scientific progress demands that the concepts of Christian doctrine concerning God, creation, revelation, the Person of the Incarnate Word, and Redemption be re-adjusted. A modern short and somewhat diluted form, including a short form of the creed, was issued in A copy can be found here.
To be sworn to by all clergy, pastors, confessors, preachers, religious superiors, and professors in philosophical-theological seminaries. Finally, I declare that I am completely opposed to the error of the modernists who hold that there is nothing divine in sacred tradition; or what is far worse, say that there is, but in a pantheistic sense, with the result that there would remain nothing but this plain simple fact-one to be put on a par with the ordinary facts of history-the fact, namely, that a group of men by their own labor, skill, and talent have continued through subsequent ages a school begun by Christ and his apostles.
I firmly hold, then, and shall hold to my dying breath the belief of the Fathers in the charism of truth, which certainly is, was, and always will be in the succession of the episcopacy from the apostles. The purpose of this is, then, not that dogma may be tailored according to what seems better and more suited to the culture of each age; rather, that the absolute and immutable truth preached by the apostles from the beginning may never be believed to be different, may never be understood in any other way.
I promise that I shall keep all these articles faithfully, entirely, and sincerely, and guard them inviolate, in no way deviating from them in teaching or in any way in word or in writing.
Thus I promise, this I swear, so help me God. This oath amounts to swearing to obey orders and never to think independently. For further commentary on this, see Fascism is socialism: Franco was not a Fascist.
And immediately afterwards, we have Pius XI raging against the socialist statolatry of Mussolini. Besides, there is involved another right of the Church equally inviolable -- the right to fulfil the imperative Divine Commission entrusted to her by her Divine Founder, to bring to souls, to bring to every soul, and the treasures of truth and of good, doctrinal and practical, which He Himself brought to the world. How great is the importance of childhood and adolescence in this absolute universality and totality of the divine mandate to the Church, has been shown by the Divine Master Himself, the Creator and Redeemer of souls, by His example and particularly by those memorable words which are also so formidable: "Suffer the little children and forbid them not to come to Me.
Woe to that man who shall scandalize one of these little ones! And here We find Ourselves confronted by a mass of authentic affirmations and no less authentic facts which reveal beyond the slightest possibility of doubt the resolve already in great measure actually put into effect to monopolize completely the young, from their tenderest years up to manhood and womanhood, for the exclusive advantage of a party and of a regime based on an ideology which clearly resolves itself into a true, a real pagan worship of the State -- the "Statolatry" which is no less in contrast with the natural rights of the family than it is in contradiction with the supernatural rights of the Church.
To propose and to promote such a monopoly to persecute for this reason Catholic Action, as has been done for some time more or less openly or under cover to reach this end by striking at the Catholic Association of Youth as has lately been done; all this is truly and literally to "forbid the little children to go to Jesus Christ," since it impedes their access to His Church and where His Church is, there is Jesus Christ. This usurpation goes so far as to snatch the young from Christ and His Church even with violence.
The Church of Jesus Christ has never contested the rights and the duties of the State concerning the education of its citizens; indeed, We Ourselves have recalled and proclaimed them in Our recent Encyclical Letter on the "Christian Education of Youth. Products of this store will be shipped directly from Japan to your country. Products of this store will be shipped directly from Hong Kong to your country. Egypt Change Country. Shop By Category. My Orders.
Pope John Paul II Comments on Rerum Novarum
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Related Rerum Novarum: Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII on Capital and Labor (English translation!)
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